The thyroid refers to an organ which is situated in the front side of a person's neck and is responsible for discharging hormones that adjust our body temperature, weight, heart & nervous system, metabolism like the way our body uses energy, along with some other processes in the body.

Talking about thyroid disease, it is a group of disorders which makes an impact in the thyroid gland. There are two different types of thyroid diseases-namely hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. When the thyroid makes too much hormone, it is said to be hyperthyroidism. It may cause many of the functions of our body to speed up. On the other way, too little thyroid hormone is stated as hypothyroidism due to which many of the body functions may slow down. Hyper relates that the thyroid is overactive and hypo shows that the thyroid is underactive. Both of them are relatively common during pregnancy and it becomes essential to treat them.

Importance of Thyroid At The Time Of Pregnancy

For having a normal development of the baby's brain and nervous system, thyroid hormones are supposed to be crucial. In the first trimester like the initial three months of pregnancy, the baby depends on the thyroid hormone supply that approaches through the placenta. When a woman enters around 12 weeks, thyroid of a baby initiates to work on its own, but gets unable to make enough hormone until a woman reaches 18 to 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Causes Of Thyroid Disease In Pregnancy

There are different types of causes of thyroid disease in pregnancy. Like, talking about hypothyroidism first, one of the most common is defined as the autoimmune disorder called Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Here, the body mistakenly attacks thyroid gland cells and leaving the thyroid without sufficient cells and enzymes to create adequate thyroid hormone to meet the requirements of the body.

The next one is hyperthyroidism where the most common cause is defined as an autoimmune disorder Grave's disease. In such conditions, the body creates an antibody, like a protein developed by the body when it believes that there is a presence of a bacteria or virus known as TSI (thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin) which causes the thyroid in reacting over and developing too much thyroid hormone.

Hyperthyroidism During Pregnancy

Hyperthyroidism takes place when the thyroid makes too much of the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. One of the good things to know is that hyperthyroidism during pregnancy is not common. Though, the symptoms may be overlooked. It is because some can mimic the hormonal changes a woman has in her normal pregnancy like feeling tired, anxious, or warm. But there is a thing that needs to understand. If a pregnant woman faces uncontrolled hyperthyroidism, it can develop high blood pressure and there can be an increased risk of miscarriage, having a baby with low birth weight or premature birth.
Sometimes hyperthyroidism begins at the time of pregnancy due to small lumps or nodules in the thyroid. Such nodules are able to create too much thyroid hormone. Women having severe vomiting and nausea or those expecting twins may have chances to develop temporary hyperthyroidism.

Treatments Of Hyperthyroidism During Pregnancy

Talking about the treatment of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, if it seems to be mild, there will not be a requirement of any treatment. Certain options like antithyroid medications are present. It is helpful in preventing too much of the thyroid hormone from getting into the baby's bloodstream. There are some rare cases in which women get unable to respond with medications or there may be a presence of some side effects from the therapies. At such cases, there can be a necessity of surgery to remove out the part of the thyroid.

There is an antithyroid medicine called propylthiouracil which the doctors most often treat the pregnant women during the initial three months of pregnancy. Another variant of antithyroid medicine is methimazole that is easier to take and contains fewer side effects. But you need to know that it is slightly more likely to create serious birth defects as compared to propylthiouracil.

There can be some symptoms of hyperthyroidism like tiredness, faster heart rate and trouble dealing with heat. There are some foods that can prove beneficial in easing the symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Like it can be strawberries as they are bursting with antioxidants that keep the immune system strong. Broccoli can prove helpful in lessening the amount of thyroid hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland. Salmon fish is there as it contains vitamin-D that is an important nutrient which works with calcium in preventing bone loss. Other things like yogurt may prove to be productive.

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Talking about the treatment of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, if it seems to be mild, there will not be a requirement of any treatment. Certain options like antithyroid medications are present.