The roof is probably the part of a house that needs most frequent maintenance, as it is exposed to wind and various precipitations and ultraviolet radiation. All of that affects the roof's performance, which is also dependable on its design, the quality of the material and proper installation. Also, regular and appropriate maintenance will affect its condition - it will help you notice damage in time and prolong its life.
Here's what roof maintenance includes:

General inspection

You should check the attic for any stains that imply water entering your home. Next step is to examine the roof - sometimes there are missing, lifted or slightly loose shingles, and some of them could contain mold and moss, or even cracks and curling.
You can also check flashing, metal roof bolts and nails - some of them may need replacing or tightening.
If you notice that curling, lifted or peeling shingles can be seen in several areas, it's a sign that roof will soon have to be replaced.

Debris removal

A pretty simple, but an important thing - remove any leaves, branches and other debris from the roof. If you don't do it regularly, it will accumulate in winter. It's best to have somebody's help and to use an extendable ladder - it will give you much better access, just don't be careless when on the ladder. It's also important to remember that removing debris from the roof should be done on a sunny day so that you don't slip.

Cleaning gutters and downspouts

Wear heavy rubber work gloves and use small scoop to remove the debris from downspouts and gutters. Next, use a soft cleaning brush to scrub the dirt and grime (just don't scrub it too hard). You'll also need a garden hose to clean the rest of the debris.
Also, don't forget to check if there is any missing caulk, rotted soffit and fascia, any cracks or missing gutter parts. If there's anything wrong, do the necessary changes or repairs.
Be careful at all times, especially when you are leaned on the gutters - if they are damaged, they could break, causing you to fall down.

Moss and mold removal

Use a roof moss remover and then cleaner on areas where moss is present. You should definitely follow the cleaner's instructions and wait for the solution to work. When the necessary time has passed, brush away the mold with a soft broom and a brush.

Chimneys, skylights and vent openings

The first step is to close off the fireplace and use a chimney brush to clean creosote. Next step is to check the chimney for any potential damage like cracked bricks or mortar.
After the work is done, seal the chimney with a water repellent product. Finally, check the vent outlets and skylights.

Know when to DIY and when not to

An important factor when it comes to roof maintenance is to know when to do the repairs and replacements on your own and when to seek professional help. DIY is a more frugal solution, that's for sure, but it doesn't mean that you can perform every type of work on your roof. Of course, if you have a few curling shingles, it would be too much to hire a professional service for that. However, professionals will do the work thoroughly and the quality of work won't be the same as yours. Also, you may not have all the necessary equipment for a specific type of repair, as it's possible you'll need to find a travel tower for hire for certain works on a high roof.

Identifying roof leaks

If you notice a stain, start from the uphill. Try to find any roof penetrations on plumbing and roof vents, as well as dormers and chimneys. It's a rare occasion that a leak appears in open areas. Also, it's possible for the damage to be several feet above the leak to the one side. In case you have an attic in your home, the quickest way to identify the leak is to go to the attic with a flashlight and thoroughly search the place for the leak. There will probably be black mark somewhere, mold or water stains. However, if you have a problem accessing your attic or if you have a vaulted ceiling, you will have to go on the roof to find the damage from the outside.

All in all

Having a functional and high-quality work is highly important, as it's the part of your home that gets affected by every outside influence the most. So, it's no wonder that regular and proper roof maintenance is necessary to avoid great damages to it that will take a lot of time and money to fix.

Author's Bio: 

Growing up on a village helped me become what I am today. Constantly surrounded by nature and animals my curiosity was satisfied. In my teen years I moved to a city and started helping out at my dad's construction company. This is how I got the idea to become a civil engineer.
Since then constantly studying and finding new projects to work on has taken almost all of my time. Buy hey that’s what I love doing so it’s not hard!