Kidney failure, also known as renal failure is a condition in which kidney function is impaired, to an extent that the kidneys fail to sufficiently filter metabolic wastes from the blood. There are two types of this condition, acute kidney injury (earlier known as acute renal failure) and chronic kidney disease. While the former is reversible with treatment, the former is not. While acute kidney injury is common, with more than 1 million cases reported every year in India, chronic kidney disease is even more common, with more than 10 million cases reported every year in India.

Signs and Symptoms

A variety of symptoms can occur during kidney failure. However, there are sometimes none of the symptoms occur. Common symptoms include:
• A reduced amount of urine
• Swelling of legs, ankles and feet caused by retention of fluid, due to the failure of kidneys
• Shortness of breath
• Excessive fatigue and/or drowsiness
• Nausea
• Pain or pressure in chest
• Confusion
• Seizures
• Coma


These are usually the causes for a kidney failure, which usually have underlying causes in themselves:
• Loss of blood flow to the kidneys: A sudden loss of blood flow can result in kidney failure. This can be caused by:
1. A heart attack
2. Heart disease
3. Scarring of the liver, or liver failure
4. Dehydration
5. A severe burn
6. An allergic reaction
7. A severe infection, such as sepsis
8. High blood pressure
9. Anti-inflammatory medicine

• Problems with elimination of urine: Kidneys can overload if the body doesn’t eliminate urine. This causes toxins to build up. Some type of cancers such as prostate, colon, cervical and bladder cancers can cause this to happen. Other causes include:
1. Kidney stones
2. Enlarged prostrate
3. Blood clots in urinary tract
4. Nerve damage to the area that controls the bladder

• There are some other diseases and causes which can lead to kidney failure, these include:

1. A blood clot in on around the kidneys
2. Infection
3. Toxins or heavy metals
4. Drugs and alcohol
5. Vasculitis
6. Lupus
7. Glomerulonephritis
8. Haemolytic Uremic syndrome
9. Multiple myeloma
10 Scleroderma
11.Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
12.Chemotherapy drugs
13.Dyes used in imaging texts
14.Certain antibiotics
15.Uncontrolled diabetes

The stages of kidney failure differ according to its type. Stages or phases of Acute Kidney Injury include:
1. Onset phase: Damage or injury occurs
2. Oliguric or Anuric phase: Urine output decreases from renal tubule damage
3. Diuretic phase: The kidneys try to heal and urine output increases, but tubule scarring and damage occur
4. Recovery phase: Tubular oedema resolves and renal function improves

The stages of chronic kidney disease, however, are determined by glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is a measure of how well the kidneys filters blood.
1. Stage 1: Kidney damage with normal or high GFR of 90 or above
2. Stage 2: Kidney damage with mildly low GFR of 60 to 89
3. Stage 3: Kidney damage with moderately low GFR of 30 to 59
4. Stage 4: Kidney damage with severely low GFR of 15 to 29
5. Stage 5: Kidney failure with GFR below 15

Kidney transplant is usually needed in chronic kidney disease, or dialysis. Kidney failure treatment is available in top hospitals in Gurgaon, Delhi, Patna and Darbhanga like Paras Hospitals, which have the best nephrologist in Gurgaon, the best kidney specialist in Patna and such experts in the mentioned cities.

Author's Bio: 

I am Gaurav Gautam, live in New Delhi, India. I am 28 years old. I am pursuing Mass. Comm. I love blogging, writing on health, fitness, lifestyle and Consumer Goods. I am available on Facebook, Twitter, Google+. Above article is about Causes and signs of Kidney Failure