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From ancient times, India has had direct taxation in some form or another. The purpose of this article is to discuss the evolution of Income Tax in India over time.

For the first time, the Tax was introduced by Sir James Wilson in 1860. India's first "Union Budget" was introduced on 7 April 1860 by the finance minister before independence, James Wilson. As a result of the military mutiny of 1857, the government had to implement the Indian Income Tax Act of 1860. Income was taxed separately under four schedules:

(1) Landed property income;
(2) Income from occupations;
(3) Income from Securities;
(4) Income from Salaries and pensions.

This act was periodically replaced by several license taxes.

1886- Passage of the Separate Income Tax Act. Various amendments to this act have been made since it became law. The Indian Income Tax Act of 1886 divided income into four schedules that were taxed separately:

(1) Salary, pension, or gratuity;
(2) Net income of companies;
(3) Interest on Indian government securities;
(4) Additional sources of income.

1918- A new income tax was enacted. As a result of the Indian Income Tax Act of 1918, several important changes were made to the Indian Income Tax Act of 1886.

1922- Another act was passed in 1922 that replaced it. Starting in the year 1922, the Income-tax Department was organized. As a result of the Income-tax Act, 1922, various income-tax authorities gained specific nomenclature for the first time. 1922 was the last year in which the Income Tax Act was in effect.

Due to numerous amendments, the Income Tax Act of 1922 had become extremely complex.

To simplify and prevent tax evasion, the Government of India referred it to the Law Commission in 1956.

1961– The Income Tax Act, 1961 was passed after consultation with the Ministry of Law. It became effective on 1 April 1962. This law applies to the entire country (which includes Jammu and Kashmir).

Every year since 1962, the Union Budget, which includes the Finance Bill, has introduced several amendments to the Income Tax Act of a far-reaching nature. It becomes the Finance Act once both houses of Parliament pass it and the President of India assents to it.

Income is currently divided into five categories:

(1) Salary income;
(2) Property income;
(3) Income derived from a business or profession;
(4) Capital gain income;
(5) Revenue from other sources.

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How Income Tax Works

Tax rates for high-income earners are generally higher than those for low-income earners in countries with progressive tax systems. The first income tax was enacted by Congress in 1862 to pay for the Civil War. In the 20th century, the tax was reinstituted after it had been repealed after the war.

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