The liver is the largest internal organ of the body. Liver is located on the right side of abdomen and below the diaphragm. Liver has a wide range of functions such as detoxification of metabolites, hormone production, break down nutrients from food to make energy, helps the body to fight infections. Liver is an accessory digestive gland which produces bile an alkaline compound which is needed for digestion. There is no other way to compensate the functioning of liver in the long term. Liver dialysis can be done for a short period. If there is a liver failure liver transplant is the only option. Liver failure can happen suddenly because of viral hepatitis, drug-induced infection or injury. Sometimes immune system also attacks bile ducts and outside of the liver also caused liver failure. Some diseases such as biliary atresia, Wilson's disease, hemochromatosis also affect the functioning of the liver.

When there is liver failure liver transplant become urgency. At this time liver transplantation is the only cure because there is no machine which can perform all the functions of the liver. Liver transplant is a surgical process in which a diseased liver is replaced by a healthy liver from another person. Liver transplant is a treatment option for the end-stage liver. The major limitation of the liver transplant is the availability of the donor. In liver transplant first the diseased liver is removed, and then a healthy liver is placed at the same anatomic location as the original liver. Liver transplant is a complicated surgery which takes around 4 to 18 hours. There are some symptoms of liver disease such as –

Gastrointestinal Bleeding – when the liver becomes scarred the pressure in the portal venous system increases. Because of this high pressure, blood return to the heart. Outside of the liver become enlarged and thin-walled because of the high amount of blood flowing through them under increased pressure. These veins called varicose which are prone to rupture which caused bleeding; when bleeding occurs into the intestinal tract, it can be life-threatening.

Fluid retention – when there is a liver failure the level of albumin is low which force fluid out of the bloodstream. These fluids cannot be reabsorbed. The fluid starts to accumulate in tissues and an abdominal cavity which is known as ascites. Fluids can also accumulate in the chest and leg cavity. Fluid retention is treated by limiting the salt intake and with the help of diuretic medicine which increases the salt and water loss from the kidney and then intermittent drainage is done by insertion of a needle into the abdominal or chest or leg cavity.

Encephalopathy – when there is liver failure ammonia, and other toxins start to accumulate in the blood which leads the cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive dysfunction leads to disturbed sleep and wakes up cycle to confusion to coma.
Jaundice – one of the primary functions of the liver is to eliminate the degradation products of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin carries oxygen in our blood. Bilirubin is one of the degradation products which is processed and excreted by the liver. When the liver is diseased, it stops to clear bilirubin from the body that is why bilirubin levels increase in the blood. So the skin and all tissues of the body will then assume yellow color.

There is a huge difference in the number of the people who need transplant and numbers of available deceased donor livers. The human liver has the power to regenerate and return to its average size shortly after the removal of part of the liver.

Author's Bio: 

This makes living donor liver transplant an alternative to waiting for a deceased donor liver.