Attributes of Philosophy
(Vinod Anand)

All the sciences are in fact philosophical, provided they are taken to the desired height with the help of knowledge that is treated as the basic instrument for this process. Once that height is attained all sciences talk of the world with their specialty of the universe. They also need intelligence and enterprise. Hence philosophy has many attributes and realms.
The first realm is its logic. Just frail and adventurous reason and profound and obscure intuition does not help. Another realm is epistemology which connotes the theory of the method or grounds of knowledge. Sometimes logic has many weary paths. Then the riddle of knowledge is solved through reality and honesty that we perceive. Metaphysics is another realm of logic, which means theoretical philosophy of being and knowing. In other words, it is the philosophy of mind, and is abstract and subtle. It is full of treasures of soul. Here nature hides her secret essence and puzzles us with a hundred clues. Here we ponder the problems of matter and life, of brain and mind, of materialism and spirituality, of mechanism and vitalism, of determinism and freedom. Another realm is called history that teaches us to go ahead in life. For example, the writing of the great economists still help us to apply their theories, and to formulate new theories. The other realm is that of politics, or political economy (an intermix of politics and economics), which talks of the various political systems. It also talks of utopia (an imaginary system) in which only wise men rule, and every city is rich and beautiful. Let us briefly look at philosophy itself, as it reveals to its readers the beautiful, the immortal, and the good. Philosophy modestly studies beauty, while art reveres and re-creates it. Philosophy knows only the problems of beauty. It tells us from where the beauty comes, and what it means, and whether it lies in the form itself or only in the hunger of our hearts. This is the realm of aesthetics which is made dreary for centuries by scholastic minds, but which is still full of wonder and delight. There is also a realm of morals and ethics which is arid with academic abstractions, but in some ways the richest of the mansions of philosophy. Ethics is the lore of the art of life. Philosophy lifts the varied knowledge of ethics into living wisdom, and it gathers guidance for mankind. It answers questions like what is the best life after all; of what good is goodness, and what right is there in power, is pleasure the aim of life, is love immoral except within the law, what is justice, and what does justice say of our industrial and developed world? These are very vital questions, in which entire civilizations may find their fate involved. Here are dilemmas that touch every state and every heart. The science of economics has perhaps effective answers to these questions.
Everyone knows that that man is mortal and the life span is unknown. Immortality also belongs to philosophy. In that case all the debates get stilled, and thought turns fearfully to consider the great enemy, and in this sense philosophy enter the portals of religion and spirituality. It dwells on the man’s relationship with the sum of life and the totality of things, of his origin on this earth and his final destiny. It can be defined as a matter of life and death. These questions do not have any answers and, as such, philosophy finally is concerned with God. It is not concerned with the God of theology, conceived presumably as outside the realm of nature, but with the God of philosophers, the law of structure, the vitality and the will of the world.
Philosophy, thus, takes us to extreme heights that are beyond our thinking. It is, therefore, termed as the queen of sciences. It will not be out of place to mention that economics also preaches many life lessons, which if followed correctly, makes people happy. In that case the ultimate end never scares anyone.


Author's Bio: 


Born in 1939, and holding Master’s Degree both in Mathematics (1959) and Economics (1961), and Doctorate Degree in Economics (1970), Dr. Vinod K.Anand has about forty five years of teaching, research, and project work experience in Economic Theory (both micro and macro), Quantitative Economics, Public Economics, New Political Economy, and Development Economics with a special focus on economic and social provisions revolving around poverty, inequality, and unemployment issues, and also on informal sector studies. His last assignment was at the National University of Lesotho (Southern Africa) from 2006 to 2008. Prior to that he was placed as Professor and Head of the Department of Economics at the University of North-West in the Republic of South Africa, and University of Allahabad in India, Professor at the National University of Lesotho, Associate Professor at the University of Botswana, Gaborone in Botswana, and at Gezira University in Wad Medani, Sudan, Head, Department of Arts and Social Sciences, Yola in Nigeria, Principal Lecturer in Economics at Maiduguri University in Nigeria, and as Lecturer at the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria in Nigeria. Professor Anand has by now published more than 80 research papers in standard academic journals, authored 11 books, supervised a number of doctoral theses, was examiner for more than twenty Ph.D. theses, and has wide consultancy experience both in India and abroad, essentially in the African continent. This includes holding the position of Primary Researcher, Principal Consultant etc. in a number of Research Projects sponsored and funded by Universities, Governments, and International Bodies like, USAID, IDRC, and AERC. His publications include a variety of themes revolving around Economic Theory, New Political Economy, Quantitative Economics, Development Economics, and Informal Sector Studies. His consultancy assignments in India, Nigeria, Sudan, Botswana, and the Republic of South Africa include Non-Directory Enterprises in Allahabad, India, Small Scale Enterprises in the Northern States of Nigeria, The Absolute Poverty Line in Sudan, The Small Scale Enterprises in Wad Medani, Sudan, Micro and Small Scale Enterprises in Botswana, The Place of Non-Formal Micro-Enterprises in Botswana, Resettlement of a Squatter Community in the Vryburg District of North West Province in the Republic of South Africa, Trade and Investment Development Programme for Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises: Support for NTSIKA in the Republic of South Africa, and Development of the Manufacturing Sector in the Republic of South Africa’s North West Province: An Approach Based on Firm Level Surveys. Professor Anand has also extensively participated in a number of conferences, offered many seminars, participated in a number of workshops, and delivered a variety of Refresher Lectures at different venues both in India and abroad. Dr. Anand was placed at the prestigious Indian Institute of Advanced Study (IIAS), Shimla in the State Himachal Pradesh, India as a Fellow from 2001 to 2003, and had completed a theoretical and qualitative research project/monograph on the Employment Profile of Micro Enterprises in the State of Himachal Pradseh, India.