A) Clinical aspects
1. Pathogenic microorganism
Fragment analysis can detect pathogenic microorganisms accurately and quickly. According to the different routes of transmission of diseases, they can be divided into insect vectors, respiratory tract, parasites, contact, gastrointestinal tract, blood and so on. Fragment analysis has achieved remarkable results in the diagnosis of pathogenic microorganisms in these diseases. For example, Jian Li, Yanhui Zhang et al. studied the simple repeat sequence (SSRs) of the Plasmodium, which distinguishes nearly 600 species of Plasmodium of the Plasmodium, which are marked with polymorphic microsatellite.
Apart from the study of malaria parasites that spread malaria, fragment analysis is also widely used in the study of respiratory diseases, such as measles virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, varicella virus, H1N1 flu and chicken blast virus. Maria A. Nagel, Don Gilden and others use reverse transcriptase PCR technology and gene mapping analysis system (GeXPS) and capillary electrophoresis and fluorescence analysis techniques to overcome the shortcomings of macroarray and microarray analysis that can not detect the gene of varicella zoster virus (VZV) latent in the human nerve center. This technique can quickly analyze VZV in human nerve. All gene transcripts at the latency of the system. In addition to the above researchers, Meng Qin, Da-yan Wang and others have also studied the H1N1 influenza virus using the GeXP gene analysis system. The study found that the method has high sensitivity and specificity, and the method can be used to detect latent mixed infection and provide a powerful method for the supervision of epidemic sexing. It also provides a platform for studying the variation of similar pathogens. Jin Li, Nai-Ying Mao and others used multiple reverse transcriptase PCR and GeXP systems to simultaneously detect 16 human respiratory viruses. The results showed that this was a fast, cost-effective, sensitive, specific and high flux method for detecting respiratory virus infection.
Fragment analysis also has applications in parasites, such as the Lishman worm, Rolando Oddone, Carola Schweynoch and others. Using multipoint microsatellite typing analysis (MLMT) to identify the Lishman worm based on 15 independent loci, the results show that MLMT is suitable for the epidemiology of Lishman and the study of population genetics of strain.
Through contact, such as adenovirus, human papillomavirus (HPV), and so on. Low risk HPV causes warts such as verruca plana and verruca vulgaris. High risk HPV causes penile cancer, cervical cancer, rectal cancer and other cancers. Meng-Jie Yang, Le Luo and others used multiple PCR and GeXP analyzer to detect 11 human papillomavirus (including 9 high risk and 2 low risk types). The results show that GeXP-PCR is a fast, highly sensitive and high throughput method for detecting multiple HPV infections. Some people in China also used GeXP-PCR to detect HPV, such as Lu Chunbin, Yang Mengjie and others, using this technology to detect and identify HPV viruses of 5 different subtypes.
Gastrointestinal infectious diseases such as detection of enterovirus associated with hand foot mouth disease. Current detection methods include real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), embedded PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism - polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP). These methods can identify enterovirus in different serum, while real-time RT-PCR and embedded PCR can only detect a limited number of serum, PCR-RFLP. Although multiple serum samples can be detected at the same time, but the price is expensive and time-consuming. The Xiumei Hu, Yong Zhang et al. Research suggests that GeXP analysis is a rapid, low cost, high flux method to distinguish 9 types of HFMD enterovirus serotypes.
Blood borne diseases such as AIDS, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and so on. They are all diseases caused by the virus. There are also many studies on the detection of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) virus through fragment analysis. Xiao Xin studied the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method used in Guangxi HIV-1 epidemic strains, and evaluated the method scientifically. The results showed that the fluorescence quantitative PCR method has a wide linear range, high specificity, good reproducibility, low detection limit, good stability of detection reagents, and highly related to the international standard NASBA test results, and countries. The internal standard kit has good consistency and can adapt to different HIV-1 subtypes in Guangxi area. This method is practical and feasible. It has good application prospect in detection of viral load, detection of early infection, and drug resistance monitoring of patients. Yin Junan uses multiple nested PCR technology to construct a rapid, economical, practical and reliable method for simultaneous detection of HBV, HCV and HIV-1. The results show that the method can detect HBV, HCV and HIV-1 simultaneously, but its sensitivity and specificity need to be further identified. Li Guiming uses magnetic beads to extract nucleic acid technology to establish a multiple real-time quantitative RT PCR detection method that can detect, identify and quantify three viruses at the same time. The sensitivity of this method is compared with the Qiagen virus DNA and RNA extraction kit. The results show that they have good correlation, and the amplification of a virus nucleic acid. It is not affected by the other two; the detection system has a high sensitivity and a minimum of 50 copies of /ml; it also shows a good correlation compared with the single weight test; it shows that the detection system has the potential for large-scale blood donation screening.
2. Individualized drug use
Individualized drug use is based on the patient's age, height and weight, genetic characteristics and other factors, choose the type and dose suitable for patients, to significantly improve the efficacy of drugs and reduce drug toxicity.
Statistics show that most drugs can not achieve satisfactory results in about 1/3, about 1/6 users have different levels of adverse reactions, and the total safety efficiency is only about 50%. ADR is the fifth leading cause of death. On the basis of genomics, it is known as pharmacogenomics by linking gene expression or single nucleotide polymorphisms with the efficacy or toxicity of drugs to study how drugs produce different effects due to genetic variation. So far, more than 100 drugs have been labeled with FDA approval in the United States to indicate the potential efficacy and toxicity of different genotypes in the use of the drug. Therefore, through gene detection, each patient can be targeted to "tailor" a set of the most suitable treatment plan, so as to maximize the efficiency of treatment, reduce drug side effects and avoid improper time of drug use.
B) Paternity test
Ancient methods of dropping blood and recognizing relatives caused many unjust cases. Now, with fragment analysis, we can quickly and accurately identify paternity.
Yang Yufa et al., using PCR complex amplification, capillary electrophoresis and five color fluorescence automatic detection technology, 389 blood samples of 143 cases of paternity test were tested and analyzed. 15 STR loci and 1 Amelogenin sex gene loci were detected and analyzed. The conclusion was that the detection site of the STR gene was many, the polymorphism was high, the DNA fragment was short, and the error caused the error. The possibility of matching and prioritized amplification is small, which improves the success rate and sensitivity of PCR amplification, and the sample dosage is less (usually only 0.1ng template DNA). Therefore, the STR gene loci detection technique can be used as the main technical means for paternity identification. Pan Meng and others, taking 262 unrelated Han individuals from Jiangsu province in 2011~2012, amplified 24 STR loci, analyzed the fragment and genotyping by ABI3130 automatic gene analyzer, and analyzed the gene polymorphisms and genes of the 24 Y chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the Han population of Jiangsu. The genetic distance between frequency and other geographical populations.
C)Other aspects
Prenatal diagnosis, individual identification, etc.

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