Urinary tract infection (UTI) as the name suggests, is an infection of the urinary tract. When it affects the upper urinary tract, it is known as kidney infection or pyelonephritis, and when it affects the lower urinary tract or cystitis, it is called bladder infection.UTI is more common in women, and has a prevalence of an estimated 10.5 million or more than 1 crore affected per year in India.
Symptoms of UTI include:
• Pain or burning feeling during urination
• Frequent and intense urge to urinate, which mostly results in no urination
• Pain or pressure in the back or lower abdomen
• Cloudy, dark, bloody or strange smelling urine
• Fatigue
• Fever or chills
In children and in very old people, symptoms may be vague, or not present at all.

When to See a Doctor?
See a doctor if you or your loved ones experience the above listed symptoms. Always trust premier institutions such as Paras Hospitals group, which have specialized departments with the best doctors, who are proficient and experiencedin their respective fields for the treatment and care of such conditions.

Causes and Risk factors
Most cases of UTI are attributed to Escherichia Coli or E. coli, a bacteria normally present in the gut and digestive system. The following risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing a UTI:
• Diabetes
• Poor personal hygiene
• Sexual Intercourse (more so if frequent and with multiple partners)
• Problems emptying the bladder completely
• Blocked flow of urine
• Having a urinary catheter for prolonged periods of time
• Bowel incontinence
• Kidney stones
• Suppressed immune system
• Menopause
• Heavy use of antibiotics

Treatment and Management
Antibiotics are mostly the first mode of action when it comes to treatment, after the doctor has run tests and diagnostics to evaluate what type of medication the patient needs.The medication depends upon the severity of the infection and is subject to change with time, so regular visits to your doctor are needed. Drinking lots of fluids are recommended to flush out the causing bacteria, with or without medication.

• For simple infections, drugs such as trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, fosfomycin and/or ciprofloxacin might be recommended. Symptoms usually clear after a few days of treatment, but you may need to continue medications for a week or so.
• Painkillers may also be given to dull bladder or abdominal pain
• For frequent UTIs, the doctor may recommend low-doses of antibiotics for 6 months or more. Vaginal oestrogen therapy may be prescribed if you’re post-menopausal.
• For severe infections, intravenous antibiotics and a stay in a hospital might be needed.

Author's Bio: 

I am a Graduate in English from Delhi University. I love to write Blogs, articles on health and lifestyle, property and real estate, fashion and design. Above article is about Causes and symptoms of Urinary tract infection