Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome of multiple origin, caused by lack of insulin and / or the inability of insulin to properly exercise its effects. Insulin is produced by the pancreas and is responsible for the maintenance of glucose metabolism. The lack of this hormone causes deficit in glucose metabolism and hence diabetes. It is characterized by high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) permanently.


Type 1 diabetes: caused by destruction of the insulin producing cells as a result of a defect in the immune system antibodies attack cells that produce this hormone. Type 1 diabetes occurs in about 5 to 10% of patients with diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes: Results from insulin resistance and insulin secretion impairment. Type 2 diabetes occurs in approximately 90% of patients with diabetes.

Gestational diabetes: is the decrease in glucose tolerance, first diagnosed during pregnancy, which may - or not - persist after delivery. Its exact cause is not yet known.

Other types of diabetes: are caused by genetic defects associated with other diseases or medication use. They can be: genetic defects of beta cell function, genetic defects in insulin action, diseases of the exocrine pancreas (pancreatitis, cancer, hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis etc.). Defects induced by drugs or chemicals (diuretics, corticosteroids, beta-blockers, contraceptives etc.).

Symptoms of Diabetes

Main symptoms of type 1 diabetes:

- urge to urinate several times
- frequent hunger
- constant thirst
- weight loss
- weakness
- fatigue
- jitters
- mood changes
- nausea and vomiting

Main symptoms of type 2 diabetes:

- frequent infections
- visual changes (blurred vision)
- difficulty in wound healing
- tingling in the feet and boils

Treatment of Diabetes

The correct treatment of diabetes means maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding various diabetes complications that arise as a result of poor glycemic control.

Possible Complications

The prolonged hyperglycemia (high levels of blood sugar) can cause serious damage to health. Complications of diabetes include:

- Diabetic retinopathy: Lesions in the retina of the eye, may cause minor bleeding and, consequently, the loss of visual acuity.
- Diabetic nephropathy: changes in the blood vessels of the kidneys that cause loss occurs protein in the urine. The agency can reduce its function slowly but gradually until your total standstill.
- Diabetic neuropathy: the nerves are unable to send and receive messages from the brain, causing symptoms such as tingling, burning or numbness in the legs, feet and hands, local pain and imbalance, muscle weakness, by the trauma, low blood pressure, digestive disorders, excessive sweating and impotence.
- Diabetic foot: occurs when an injured or infected area on the feet of people with diabetes develops an ulcer (sore). Its onset can occur when blood circulation is impaired and blood sugar levels are poorly controlled. Any foot injury should be treated promptly to avoid complications that can lead to amputation of the affected limb.
- Myocardial infarction and stroke: occurs when the large blood vessels are affected, leading to blockage (arteriosclerosis) of vital organs like the heart and brain. The good glucose control, physical activity and medications that can combat high blood pressure, high cholesterol and quitting smoking are essential safety measures. The incidence of this problem is two to four times greater in individuals with diabetes.
- Infections: excess glucose can damage the immune system, increasing the risk of contracting diabetes person with some sort of infection. This is because the white blood cells (responsible for fighting viruses, bacteria etc.). Become less effective with hyperglycemia. The high level of blood sugar that is conducive to fungi and bacteria to proliferate in areas such as mouth and gums, lungs, skin, feet, genitals and surgical incision site.

Living / Prognosis

Patients with diabetes should be advised to:

- Perform daily examination of the feet to avoid the appearance of lesions
- Maintain a healthy diet
- Using prescription drugs
- Physical activities
- Keeping good control of blood glucose by following medical guidelines correctly


Patients with a family history of diabetes should be instructed to:

- Maintain a normal weight
- No smoking
- Controlling blood pressure
- Avoid medications that could potentially harm the pancreas
- Practice regular physical activity

Author's Bio: 

For type 2 diabetes exists medicine Glucophage (Metformin), which can control sugar level in blood. Before use this medicine read:
Metformin warnings - www.tabletsmanual.com/online/glucophage#precautions
Metformin side effects - www.tabletsmanual.com/online/glucophage#side_effect