Stem Cell is a young, primordial and undifferentiated entity with an outstanding potential to replenish, differentiate and develop into any desired tissue or organ of the body.

Types of Stem Cells

Embryonic stem cells: Near the beginning stages of embryonic development, the cells stay somewhat undifferentiated (immature) and materialize to possess the ability to become, or make a distinction, into almost any tissue inside the body. Cells in the early embryonic phase are totipotent and can differentiate to become almost any type of body cell. After about one week, the zygote becomes a blastocyst, which comprises of a mass of cells that in due course of time becomes the fetus, plus a trophoblastic tissue that finally becomes the placenta. If cells are removed from the blastocyst at this juncture, they are known as pluripotent, implying that they have the capability to differentiate into several different types of human cell.

Fetal Stem Cells: The embryo is referred to as a fetus after the eighth week of maturity. The fetus contains stem cells that are pluripotent and ultimately grow into the different body tissues in the fetus.

Adult Stem Cells: An adult stem cell is considered to be an undifferentiated cell, created among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ that can refurbish itself and can separate to give way to some or all of the major specialized cell types. The most important role of adult stem cells in a living organism is to preserve and repair the tissue in which they have been originated.

Peripheral blood stem cells: The majority of blood stem cells are inside the bone marrow, but a few are there in the bloodstream. This means that these peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) can be extracted from a drawn blood sample. The blood stem cell gives rise to a very large number of very different cells like red blood cells, platelets, granulocytes, and lymphocytes.

Umbilical cord stem cells: Blood from the umbilical cord includes some stem cells that are genetically indistinguishable to the newborn. Similar to adult stem cells, these are multipotent stem cells that are competent enough to differentiate into certain, but not all, cell types. For the same reason, umbilical cord blood is stored, for possible future use in case an individual requires stem cell therapy.

Why are stem cells essential?

Stem cells symbolize an enlivening area in medicine for the reason that they have a potential to redevelop and mend damaged tissue. Some contemporary therapies, such as bone marrow transplantation as it is make use of stem cells and their potential for restoration of damaged tissues. Additional therapies are under examination that involves transplanting stem cells into a damaged body part and directing them to develop and differentiate into a healthy tissue.

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