Although there are thousands of enzymes in the human body, the greatest impact on human nutrition intake is digestive enzymes. The lack of sufficient digestive enzymes not only prevents food nutrients from being fully absorbed and utilized, but also affects the efficiency of muscle synthesis in the body. Nutrients can be absorbed by intestinal cells in the digestive tract through different enzymes, and then transported to various tissues and organs in the body.

Generally speaking, the main digestive enzymes in the human body are the following categories:

1. Amylase:

The digestive enzymes that help digest and break down carbohydrates are amylases, which are secreted from the pancreas to help digest and absorb starchy foods. Amylase can be divided into α amylase, β amylase, amylopectin and glucoamylase, etc., through these enzymes, starch can be completely broken down. In addition, the human body is a monogastric animal, so the main degradation of starch is accomplished by endogenous α amylase.

2. Protease

The function of protease is to break down the protein ingested by animals. When we eat, the stomach will begin to secrete powerful protease, which will prepare for the digestion process. Without such enzymes, ingesting as much protein as possible will have no effect. Therefore, some protein nutrition supplements on the market, such as whey protein, will add some digestive enzymes in advance. Proteases can be mainly classified into metal loexoaminopeptidases, metal loexocarboxyeptidases, serine endoproteases, cysteini endoproteases, carboxyl endoproteases, metallo endoproteases and so on. Each protease will act exclusively on a specific peptide bond due to different amino acid residues. For example, trypsin (serine endoproteases) can only hydrolyze lysine, meaning that no matter what kind of protease is lacking, it will cause our nutritional intake obstacle.

3. Lipase

Lipase, also known as pancreatic lipase, is an enzyme that promotes the breakdown of fat. Enzymes that can decompose fat in the human body include lingual lipase, gastric lipase, and pancreatic lipase. The digestion of fat is mainly broken down by the action of pancreatic fat. Pancreatic adipose pancreas is mainly secreted by the pancreas and enters the duodenum. During the digestion process, the fat is broken down into glycerol and fatty acid, and then absorbed into the body.

4. Lactase

Humans must always ingest dairy-derived proteins, such as whey protein, casein, and so on. These protein products usually contain lactose. Drinking these protein products for patients with lactose intolerance can easily lead to diarrhea or indigestion, which is the consequence of a lack of lactase in the body. In our intestines, the digestion of lactose is mainly based on the lactase in the top of the villi of the small intestine to break down lactose into the most basic monosaccharides and then further absorb them. When lactase is inadequate, undecomposed lactose becomes food for intestinal bacteria in the large intestine. When these bacteria digest lactose, they produce gases such as hydrogen and carbon dioxide, as well as substances such as lactic acid, water, and short-chain fatty acids. These large amounts of extra gas, water, and acid can cause vomiting, farting, bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and sour stools.

5. Cellulase
The role of cellulase is to break down cellulosic matter, but before discussing cellulase, we must first understand the importance of dietary fiber. The fiber we ingest daily can be divided into two categories, water-soluble and water-insoluble. The water-soluble dietary fibers include semi-fibrous, pectin, and algae, such as fruits and vegetables, cereals, beans and so on. The water-insoluble dietary fiber includes fiber, wood, gum, viscose, etc. For example, beans, vegetables, fruits, and rhizome foods all contain water-insoluble dietary fiber.

Dietary fiber is very important for the human body, because the food we usually consume, especially protein, will easily cause the accumulation of toxins in the body and the burden on the digestive tract. Although dietary fiber is very important, the human body cannot make any cellulase to digest dietary fiber. Although a small amount of these dietary fibers can be broken down and digested by bacteria in our intestines (bacteria will make secreted cellulase), but most fibers are excreted by the body.

Generally speaking, dietary fiber absorbs water in the digestive tract, and absorbs other residues, indigestible waste, food additives, toxins, carcinogens, harmful substances, etc., forming an object like soft clay, which can stimulate more The peristalsis of the intestines removes these unhelpful wastes. In summary, the trace amount of cellulase in the human body is made by intestinal bacteria, and the decomposed fiber is only carbohydrates, which has little effect on the human body.

Author's Bio: 

Creative Enzymes is a remarkable supplier and manufacturer in the Enzymology field. Equipped with advanced technique platform, Creative Enzymes is able to offer high-quality and professional services for customers. Its products and services are widely used in the academic and pharmaceutical industries.