The summation is to form a series by adding up the numbers. It has two sequences, finite and infinite. Finite series contains both values that are upper as well as a lower limit and infinite contains no series; it is continuous. Simply summation means to add something. Its symbol is (Σ). Its example is that if we have four values such as 2, 5, 7, 8, and these are placed on the x-axis known as x values. So, its summation will be Σ (x) = 2 + 5 + 7 + 8 = 22. It also contains (i) and (n) which means ‘I’ at the base which is equal to 1 which donates the first value of the x-axis. ‘n’ at the top which donates the last value.

Now a question that hits the mind is what is sigma notation? It is denoted with a symbol ‘S’ that is a Greek upper case letter. This symbol represents the sum of the values. A value that is supposed to add up appears at the symbol. Its index is i which appears at the below of the sigma sign. This index simply shows that it is equal to 1. The lower limit of the summation notation is where the values start. The upper limit of the summation notation is where the values end.

How can one calculate sigma notation? One should know about these things in order to calculate sigma notations that are sigma symbol, n number, lower limit, upper limit, and sequence of the values. Its equation is

X1, X2, X3 … Xn denotes different values that need to add up.

Now how is one going to use a summation calculator? This calculator is known as an expression simplifier. To use this calculator one has to know about upper limit, lower limit, and function. After this one has to click the calculate button and the results will be displayed.

Percent error is the difference between the measured value and the known value. Its purpose is to identify how closely the measured and known values are. Percent error is the difference between a theoretical and experimental value, is divided by the theoretical value, and multiplied by 100 or by using percent error calculator. Positive and negative signs show how closely the values fall in the range of expected value that is below or above the range. To report the error, it can be done through the signs that are positive and negative, and secondly, through reporting the values of the figures.

Its formula is the difference between a theoretical and experimental value, is divided by the theoretical value, and multiplied by 100. That is:

Percent error = |experimental value – theoretical value| \ theoretical value x 100 %

Firstly, we have to subtract the two values. Secondly, the negative sign can be ignored as this shows error. Thirdly, now divide the error by the original value. Fourth, now multiply this by 100 %. Through this one can find the error and the exact value is known.

Students face another problem regarding their assignments is that the assignment is usually in the form of a PDF file and hence students cannot copy/paste the content while they are doing assignments. URPDF is an online platform from which students can change their adobe files from Word to PDF or other file format without losing the quality of the document.

Various math steps are usually similar to each other. Students sometimes find it difficult to learn various concepts of mathematics. Using online calculators is the latest mode of learning but these online calculators doesn’t change the fact that the manual learning of formulas and concepts is still the major aspect of information.

I am a researcher and a technical content writer. I have also been a math teacher since 2007. I like travelling, Love to explore new places, people & traditions. Football is more than a sport, Real Madrid forever. Madridista.

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