As the effect and safety of enzyme preparations in flour improvement are increasingly recognized by the flour industry and food industry, people have a more and more in-depth understanding of its practicality. As an important member of the family of enzyme preparations, lipase has been recognized by the majority of users for its application effects in whitening, fine tissue, and improvement of the skin of pasta products. There are three main lipases used in bakery products, namely triglyceride lipase, phospholipase, and galactose lipase. Among the three lipases, triglyceride lipase and phospholipase are more commonly used baking enzymes. What are the main functions of lipase in the improvement of flour quality?

① Strong gluten, can increase the volume of bread.
The mechanism is that three lipases decompose the lipids contained in flour, and triglyceride lipase decomposes non-polar triglycerides into mono/diglycerides; phospholipase and galactose lipase decompose polar lecithin and galactolipid into lysolecithin and mono/digalactose monoglycerides. This decomposition can form a stronger polar and hydrophilic structure, which can better combine with water and gluten to form a stronger gluten network. At the same time, polar lipids have an effect on increasing the volume of baked products.

② Whitening effect
The mechanism is that lipase decomposes fat to release the pigment dissolved in the fat, and the pigment is oxidized and faded by oxygen in the air to achieve the secondary whitening effect. This application feature of lipase is widely used in the whitening of steamed bread, especially after the use of benzoyl peroxide in flour is prohibited, this application is more recognized and used. However, unlike the direct bleaching effect of benzoyl peroxide on flour, the whitening effect of enzyme preparations will gradually appear under the influence of common factors such as moisture, stirring, and reaction time.

③Improve the structure of the bread core, make it delicate and soft, and increase the shelf life of the bread.
Lipase decomposition produces esters/lipids, which act as emulsifiers to increase the softness of bread. This is also a direction to replace or reduce emulsifiers, make product labels simple, and reduce the amount of emulsifiers added can reduce product costs. Triglyceride lipase hydrolyzes fat to form glycerol, which can combine with starch to form a complex and delay the aging of starch. It can be used together with bacterial α-amylase to achieve the effect of prolonging the freshness of bread.

As everyone knows, in addition to a small amount of fat (1%~2%) contained in the flour itself, various fats such as margarine, butter, coconut oil, etc. are added during the bread making process according to specific varieties and technological requirements. . Lipase will partially break down these added fats into esters/lipids and free fatty acids. Free fatty acids can be further hydrolyzed and oxidized to generate peroxides and hydroperoxides. Peroxides can continue to decompose into aldehydes and ketones and other oxides, causing the rancidity of oils and fats, resulting in the smell of oil.

In summary, when using bread flour improvers, flour mills should take into account factors such as the types of fats and oils in the bread recipes of downstream food factories, and the production technology of the dough, to appropriately add lipases. It is best to inform downstream customers about the precautions for using fats and oils. This will not only improve the properties of the dough and achieve better baking results, but will not cause unpleasant odors or even oily odors, which will affect product quality.

Author's Bio: 

Creative Enzymes is a remarkable supplier and manufacturer in the Enzymology field. Equipped with advanced technique platform, Creative Enzymes is able to offer high-quality and professional services for customers. Its products and services are widely used in the academic and pharmaceutical industries.