One significant problem with the inner elephant is that it hinders people's ability to see reality. Most individuals perceive the world based on their needs and biases, rather than on external events.

The inner executive must deal with the inner elephant's tendency to judge others and the self, to create illusions, and to defend the self. Daft calls these tendencies the "internal judge," the "internal magician," and the "internal attorney."

* The Internal Judge. The inner elephant views others in a very negative way, and this manifests itself through the internal judge. The internal judge is harsh toward others, and evaluates people without empathy or consideration.

This critical mindset makes it difficult for leaders to motivate people. To combat the internal judge, the inner executive must detach and view situations in a more balanced manner.

The internal judge also may turn inward and engage in self-criticism. This lowers a person's self-confidence and reduces his or her leadership ability.

People must learn to recognize the internal judge's voice and be able to decipher that its proclamations are not true.

* The Internal Magician. The inner elephant uses the internal magician to invent experiences and interpretations which satisfy its desire for simple, rational explanations. The internal magician can be problematic for managers because it may invent "true" details to justify a decision.

* The Internal Attorney. The internal attorney acts as a defense mechanism, protecting people from rejection, failure, and loss. This defense mechanism prevents individuals from assuming responsibility for mistakes and blames others for problems. Like the internal judge and magician, the internal attorney ultimately masks reality.

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