Depression is a common mental health problem that results in persistent sadness as well as changes in thinking, sleeping, eating, and acting. There are numerous varieties. Treatment for depression typically involves either talk therapy, medication, or both. It is critical to get medical attention as soon as you have symptoms.

What is Depression?

Depression is a mental illness characterized by a persistent feeling of sadness and a loss of interest in things and activities you once found enjoyable. Also, it could be challenging to think, remember, eat, and sleep.

Being extremely sad over difficult situations in life, like losing your job or getting divorced, is a typical emotion. Depression, however, differs in that it lasts for at least two weeks and encompasses more symptoms than just sadness.

There are numerous variations of depressive disorders. The term "depression" is widely used to refer to major depressive disorder, also known as clinical depression

In extreme cases, it could lead to self-harm or suicide. The good news is that treatments typically significantly reduce symptoms.

Major depressive disorder is the most common type of depression, though there are other types as well. It is composed of episodes whose symptoms last at least two weeks. 

When someone is sad, weeks, months, or even years may pass. Many people suffer from this chronic disease, which gets better before recurring.

Depression Types

Major depressive disorder, also known as clinical depression, is characterized by feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or worthlessness on the majority of days for at least two weeks, along with additional symptoms like difficulty sleeping, a lack of interest in previously enjoyed activities, or a change in appetite. This is both the most severe and most prevalent type of depression.

Mild to moderate depression lasting at least two years are referred to as persistent depressive disorder (PDD). Compared to major depressive illness, the symptoms are less severe. PDD was once referred to as dysthymia by medical professionals.

Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD): In children, DMDD results in repeated episodes of extreme irritability and persistent irritability. Often, symptoms appear around the age of 10. 

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD): In addition to the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), PMDD patients also have mood symptoms such as extreme irritability, anxiety, or depression. These symptoms typically disappear a few days after your period starts, but they can get so strong that they seriously interfere with your daily life.

Depression brought on by a different medical condition: Many medical problems might alter your body in ways that lead to depression. Hypothyroidism, heart disease, Parkinson's disease, and cancer are some of the examples to think of. When the underlying illness is successfully treated, depression typically gets better as well.

Symptoms of Depression

Both psychological and physical manifestations of depression include

  • Persistently feeling down
  • Changes in appetite and body weight, as well as a lack of interest or enjoyment in hobbies and activities
  • A movement that is unusually slow or disturbed
  • Reduced energy or weariness
  • Overwhelming shame or worthlessness, difficulties sleeping or oversleeping
  • Suicidal ideas, suicide attempts, or thoughts of death

Who is affected by depression?

Anybody can experience depression, including both adults and children. In comparison to men and that assigned male at birth, women and those assigned female at birth are more prone to experience depression.

Certain factors increase the risk factors of depression. As an illustration, the following circumstances are linked to higher rates of depression:

  • Disorders that affect the nervous system, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.
  • Stroke.
  • Sclerosis.
  • Epilepsy diseases.
  • Cancer.
  • Aging of the retina.
  • The ache lasts for a long time.

Why does depression occur?

The precise etiology of depression is unknown. They believe that several elements, such as the following, have influenced its growth:

Brain chemistry: Depression is a result of an imbalance of neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine.

Genetics: You're nearly three times as likely to experience depression as the general population if you have a first-degree relative (a biological parent or sibling) who has the illness. Yet depression can exist even when there is no familial history of the condition.

Stressful life events: Tough situations including the death of a loved one, trauma, divorce, loneliness, and a lack of support can cause depression.

Persistent pain and long-term illnesses like diabetes can contribute to sadness.

Medication: Depression is a side effect of some drugs. usage of drugs and alcohol.

How can one treat depression?

Depression is among the most manageable and treating mental health conditions. A positive outcome is eventually experienced by between 80% and 90% of depressed people who seek treatment.

Options for treatment include:

Psychotherapy. Depression counselling can help tremendously. Talking with a mental health professional is a part of psychotherapy (talk therapy). Your therapist assists you in recognizing and altering unhelpful feelings, attitudes, and behaviors. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most popular form of psychotherapy out of the several available. Short-term therapy is all you need on occasion. Some people stay in counseling for months or even years.

Medications. Antidepressants, a class of prescription drugs, can help alter the brain chemistry that underlies depression. Antidepressants come in a variety of forms, and choosing the right one for you may take some time.

Additionally, there are activities you may do at home to lessen the symptoms of depression, such as:

Engaging in regular exercise.

Getting good sleep (not too little or too much).

Eating a healthy, balanced diet.

Avoid drinking alcohol.

Engaging in conversation with the individuals you value.

Author's Bio: 

I am Radhika Singh, I have worked in BetterLYF Wellness Pvt. LTD as a psychologist. I would like to share an overview of depression, read my complete article who are not aware of the term depression.