You often hear the term miscarriage at a hospital or whispered among the ladies. The term can be described as the loss of a fetus before it had been developed fully. A pregnant woman is said to have had a miscarriage when the fetus drops out of the woman well before 20 weeks of the pregnancy has gone past. It is a spontaneous process with the woman not being able to understand that she is about to abort the baby suddenly.

Losing the baby so early does not make it easier to bear, and the couple is often emotionally overwhelmed and sense a loss akin to the death of a loved one. Sure, no one can help fully in such circumstances. However, it might help to visit a clinic and talk to a gynecologist in order to
understand how and why it happened. Do not fret though for you are certainly not alone. Statistics reveal that about 10% to 20% of all pregnancies are not carried to full term and may end with the concerned woman miscarrying the fetus.

Symptoms of Miscarriage

Strangely, most of miscarriages are known to occur before the 12 th week of the pregnancy. This is why the gynecologist advises her patient about being extremely careful in the first trimester (initial three months) of her pregnancy. The symptoms of miscarriage are certainly not identical for all women.

However, do remember to go to the ER immediately on:-

Having vaginal bleeding or spotting Experiencing intense abdominal pain or a dull ache in the lower back region
Seeing some fluid or tissues expel from the vagina
Doctors recommend putting the tissue into a clean container and taking it to the nearest hospital for
analysis. While bleeding and spotting can be a cause for alarm, women who have it arrested in time
eventually go on to carry their baby for a full term and give birth as expected.

Causes of Miscarriage

The reason for a miscarriage is not external usually. The specialist doctors dealing with the problems of
the reproductive system have identified a number of causes behind loss of the fetus prematurely. It has
been seen that about half of the miscarriages occur due to developmental anomalies or faulty chromosomes. An additional chromosome or lack of one can result in expulsion of the fetus spontaneously from the womb. The problem is not inherited though with the parents not responsible in any way.

On the contrary, it is a cell division error that may cause miscarriages to happen.Some of the other chromosomal anomalies associated with miscarriage include:-

 Blighted Ovum- There is no embryo formed after fertilization

 Molar Pregnancy- The fetus inherits both sets of chromosomes from the male partner causing
the placenta to be deformed and unable to sustain the fetus.

 Partial Molar Pregnancy- This is similar to the molar pregnancy but the mother does provide a set of chromosomes that are not used in formation of the embryo. The placenta is malformed as a result with the fetus being defective as well.

 Intrauterine Demise of Fetus- Failure of proper development results in the death of the fetus.

The expectant mother needs to be extra careful when she is in the early stages of pregnancy. Her health is a cause for concern as any of the following issues may end in a miscarriage:-

 Untreated and uncontrolled diabetes

 Infections causing toxicity within the womb

 Hormonal imbalance

 Problems in the uterus or cervix

 Thyroid diseases

Miscarriage Treatment

While there is nothing to be done to prevent the loss after the fetus has been aborted, most doctors choose to advice the patients with a risk of miscarriage. The threat is usually found in older women and in others who have had miscarriages in the past.

The gynecologist usually advises total bed rest along with a limited amount of exercise to her patient. Long and arduous travel plans are told to be kept on
hold during the first trimester of pregnancy.

a)Management- There are a number of diagnostic tests including ultra sound to discover the state
of the embryo within the uterus. Absence of a fetus or a dead one can be determined along with a defective embryo that is on the verge of being expelled. The doctors usually wait for the embryo to be aborted spontaneously but the dead fetus may have to be surgically removed in
some cases.

b) Medical Treatment- The medical professionals may prescribe drugs for expulsion of the
remaining fetal tissues and the placenta after the embryo comes out of the womb.

c) Surgery- A D&C is usually done when the miscarriage causes heavy bleeding with associated infection. The doctor dilates the cervix and removes the tissues that have been left behind with the wall of uterus scraped thoroughly.

Prevention of Miscarriage

Miscarriage is an incident that comes with no warning. There is usually no way to prevent it. However,
doctors do advice their patients to do the following in order to reduce the risk factors.

 Taking care of oneself both physically and mentally
 Keeping the blood pressure and blood glucose levels under control
 Quitting smoking and drinking alcohol as well as usage of drugs
 Following a healthy diet that includes multivitamin supplements
 Restricting caffeine intake

Author's Bio: 

Myself Seetharam raj have a decent knowledge on infertility and its treatment options. To know more about treatment options visit: https://kicbengaluru.com/