Migraine is characterized by moderate to severe headache, generally on one side of the head. It is said to be a neurological disorder. Although the exact reason for this is not known it may be due to abnormalities in nerves, blood vessels or muscles. Various triggers initiate or worsen the symptoms of migraine. Treatment depends upon the severity and frequency of migraine attacks.

Cause Of Migraine
The causes of migration are still unknown. But researcher fined some possible cause of migraine such as:

Abnormalities in the function of blood vessel of the brain may cause migraine.
If any family member suffers from migraine then the risk of migraine in significantly increased.
Alterations in brain chemicals and nerves pathways also can cause migraine.
Migraine is also caused form some underlying central nervous system disorder.
Abnormalities in estrogen and serotonin level may cause migraine.
Triggers Of Migraine
Hormonal changes: When the level of estrogen fluctuates before and after the menstrual cycle, menopause, and pregnancy, it may trigger your migraine.
Environment triggers: Loud noise, flickering screen, strong smells such as perfumes smell, second-hand smoke, and paint thinner also trigger your migraine.
Drinks: More alcohol consumption triggers your migraine because alcohol increases the frequency of urination which causes dehydration in your body. Due to dehydration, blood vessels dilate which cause migraine.
Caffeine: Too much consumption of caffeine may worsen migraine. Because caffeine causes constriction of blood vessels which decrease your blood blow in the brain. When blood flow reduces in the brain, it may cause migraine.
Physical triggers: Lack of physical activity such as poor posture, and neck and shoulder tension trigger your migraine.
Medications: Medication such as oral contraceptive pills which areused asbirth control pills, hormone replacement therapy and some sleeping pills can also trigger your migraine.
Artificial sweeteners: Artificial sweeteners such as aspartame which is found in some sugar-free products such as diet beverage, yogurt, and chewing gum can trigger a migraine or worsens the symptoms of migraine.
Stress: Stress can promote your migraine. Stress may be the result of both professional and personal circumstances.
Whether changes: Changes in weather and barometric pressure can trigger your migraine.
Sleep changes: Not sleeping properlyor getting too much sleep can trigger migraine in some peoples.
Treatment Of Migraine
Migraine treatment improves your symptoms of migraine and prevents a future attack of migraine. The medication to treat migraine is dividing into two categories such as:

Medication for pain relief
Pain relievers: Your doctor prescribed you some over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including ibuprofen. If you take both drugs for a long time,it may cause some adverse effects such as headache, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract and ulcers.
Dihydroergotamines: The low dosages of this medicine are very effective they are started just at the time of initiation of symptoms. This is available in the form of nasal spray and or injection. The long-term use of this medicine may cause vomiting and nausea.
Triptans: These are a type of prescription medication. Triptans such as sumatriptan and rizatriptan block the pain pathway of the brain. These are available in various forms such as shots, tablets, and nasal spray. These medicines may not be safe for patients with increased risk of stroke and heart attack.
Opioid medications: Your doctor prescribed opioid medications when all treatments fail and there is no improvement in migraine symptoms. It is advised not to take these medications for a long time because they are highly addictive.
Medication to prevent future attacks
Antidepressant drugs: Tricyclic antidepressant such as amitriptyline help in the prevention of migraine. Amitriptyline affects the level of serotonin and other chemicals of the brain.
Botox injection: The doctor may inject botulinum toxin in an extracranial sensory branch of the trigeminal nerve and spinal nerve. Botox administered in the nerve ending blocks the chemical secretion which is responsible for pain.
Blood pressure-lowering medication: Blood pressure-lowering medication such as beta-blockers (metoprolol tartrate, and propranolol) and calcium channel blocker (verapamil) are also used in the treatment of migraine.
Anti-seizures drugs: When you are suffering from less frequent migraine, then anti- seizures drugs such as topiramate and valproate are effective to treat your migraine. This can also cause some side effects such as weight changes, nausea, and dizziness.
Calcitonin gene-related peptides monoclonal antibodies: Food and drug administration have approved some new drugs to treat migraines such as erenumabaooe, glacanezumab-gnlm, and fremanezumab–vfrm. Many such drugs are injected once in a month by injection.

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Dr. Vikas Kathuria is a neurosurgeon and spine surgeon in Gurgaon, Haryana. He specialises in Brain Tumor Surgery, Deep brain stimulation, Spine surgery, Brain Hemorrhage treatment and Head Injury treatment in gurgaon, rohtak, faridabad and sonipat.