Male Pattern Baldness (MPB) is the phenomenon of hair loss or thinning hair that is more explicit among men. The majority of men, at certain ages, are seen to be affected. The condition is scientifically termed Androgenetic alopecia. Around 30% of men below the age of 50 years and 50-70% of men above the age of 50 years face this issue. MPB is termed, because of the significant pattern of falling hair among men. Firstly, the hairs above the temples are lost, and then the loss progressively recedes towards the crown of the head. This creates M-shaped pattern baldness. Unnoticed and untreated, the situation leads to total hair loss at the crown and thinned hair at some parts of the head. In worse scenarios, the patient has to face complete baldness. Hair loss at any one portion of the scalp is known as alopecia areata. This is a problem related to a weak immune system, fungal infection, or any other skin disease. The result is patchy baldness, which does not lead to whole scalp baldness.
Male pattern baldness is related to environmental factors, health, and genetic factors. The health factors associated with this phenomenon involve high blood pressure, insulin resistance, or prostate gland enlargement. The genetic causes concern the hormones in men called androgens, mainly dihydrotestosterone. Such hormones are responsible for male sexual development and hair growth. Hairs grow from the follicles present in the scalp. Each hair grows for 2-6 years, achieves a resting stage, and then falls out. Increased level of androgens in follicles cause loss of hair, hair thinning, delayed, and shorter life cycle of hair regrowth. Researchers suggest that diseases like obesity, B.P., and prostate cancer must be related to the levels of androgens in the body, because of which they are related to Androgenetic alopecia.
Age and nutritional deficiencies can also be a factor in causing male pattern baldness. Most men experience hair loss in their later ages. This might be because of medications such as anticoagulants, vitamin A supplements, and blood thinners. Iron deficiency and stress also cause hairs to fall out. The most famous baldness cause in people’s perception is related to heredity. Primarily, the baldness gene is transferred from the maternal grandfather. However, the presence of dominant baldness genes in immediate relatives (either from the paternal or maternal side) poses a higher risk of this disease in an individual. Many research studies report the gene as Androgen Receptor (AR) gene. The presence of a protein known as prostaglandin D2 in the scalp also causes hair loss. A single gene or a cluster of genes involved in the production of hair or hair follicles, hair growth, and sex determination seems to control the occurrence of male pattern baldness. A certain cluster of genetic variants, if transferred in any person, increases the risk by 58%. The DNA analysis of a person contains information regarding the likelihood of a person getting baldness at any stage of life.
Male pattern baldness is perceived as a natural phenomenon that occurs with age. Many men tend not to get themselves treated until full baldness is reached. Loss of hair in men who are less than 50 years of age causes depression, lower self-esteem, and other psychological problems. US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Agency recommends two types of medication. One type is Minoxidil. Minoxidil is an over-the-counter medicine used widely to tackle crown hair loss. This medicine is prescribed for 3-6 months and has to be taken regularly to ensure its effectiveness. If discontinued the patient may suffer from faster hair loss. This medicine has various side-effects such as contact dermatitis, irritation, swelling, itching, and sensitivity. The patient may also suffer from chest pain, irregular pulse rate, headache, blurred vision, numbness, light-headedness, weight gain, or other such issues. The other type is Finasteride and dutasteride. Finasteride is an oral medication, which is prescribed-only and used for 3-6 months. The effectiveness appears only after 6 months. The medicine lowers the level of dihydrotestosterone in the scalp to prevent the weakening of hair follicles. The overdose or discontinuation of this drug causes sexual dysfunction, skin rash, dizziness, diarrhea, back pain, abdominal pain, swelling of oral organs, and headache. Finasteride is similar in its characteristics and action, to dutasteride.
Some people use mild shampoos or special shampoos such as Ketoconazole 2% and Pyrithione Zinc 1%. However, they are less effective than the medications described above. Male Pattern Baldness can also be treated by Hair Transplantation or Laser Treatments. Hair Transplantation is the surgical process of removing hair from a part of the scalp with available hair and transplanting it on the bald scalp part. This might be done by cutting the scalp strip and transplanting it (FUT), or by extracting each hair follicle and transplanting it to the bald scalp without scarring (FUE). If sufficient hair is not present on the scalp, then hair from other body parts can also be used. Hair transplant surgery offers 60-80% success without any side-effects or long-term medications. Laser Therapy is not an FDA approved process, owing to various side-effects of laser technology on human cells and DNA. The course of this therapy lasts 6-12 months, without much effectiveness.
Men with risks of male pattern baldness, either because of genes or because of environmental pressure must take precautions to prevent the loss of hair. Dietary supplements cannot cause hair regrowth, but they can help prevent the issue. A healthy diet, regular exercise, positive environments, avoiding all forms of drugs is good for hair. If you are unwilling to get treatment then you can choose to change your style such as growing a beard, shaving the entire head, or whatever the personal hairdresser advises. Ultimately, you can always get a smart look. If you are thinking to get a hair transplant in Pakistan then you can click and read more information about it

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