Usually, couples see a fertility specialist or IVF doctor in gurgaon or any town/city to address their conception issues when their efforts are not fruitful. After interacting and going through the reports of the recommended tests, the doctor confirms who has the problem (infertility) and what the root cause of that problem is. 

 

Infertility is a type of inability to produce a child. It occurs to both males and females of reproductive age, usually up to 35-40 years. Around 40% of infertility relate to females, 40% to males, and the rest 20% to unknown causes. Here know what makes males infertile/causes of male infertility:      

 

Varicocele

Creates inflammation of the veins that damage the testicles. This is the most common reversible cause of the problem. The exact cause of this problem is unknown, but it may be due to abnormal regulation of testicular temperature. Varicose veins impair sperm quality. Treatment of varicose veins can improve sperm count and function, and has potential benefits from assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilisation.

 

Infections

Some infections can stop sperm production, harm sperm health or block the passage of sperm. This includes swelling of the epididymis or testicles and some sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV or gonorrhoea. Some infections can permanently damage the testicles.

 

Ejaculation problems

Retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen does not come out of the tip of the penis during ejaculation and enters the bladder. A variety of health problems can cause retrograde ejaculation, including trauma, diabetes, over-medication, and prostate surgery.

 

Some males with spinal cord injuries or certain disorders can’t ejaculate semen, even though they still generate sperm. Often in these cases, sperm can still be utilised in assisted reproductive techniques.

 

Tumours

Cancers and nonmalignant tumours can damage the male reproductive organs directly, through the pituitary glands that produce hormones related to reproduction, or through unknown reasons. In some cases, treatments like surgery, radiation or chemotherapy to prevent tumours can destroy male fertility.

 

Undescended testicles

In some men, during foetal development, one or both testicles do not descend from the stomach into the sac that usually contains the testicles. Men with this condition have decreased fertility.

 

Hormonal imbalances

Infertility can occur from problems of the testicles themselves or an abnormality affecting other hormonal systems including the pituitary, hypothalamus, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low male hypogonadism and other hormonal issues have many causes.

 

Chromosome defects

Inherited diseases such as Klinefelter’s syndrome — in which a man is born with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome — cause wrong development of a man’s reproductive parts. Other genetic syndromes are Kallmann’s syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and Kartagener’s syndrome.

 

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Problems with sexual intercourse

These problems can include difficulty in keeping or maintaining an adequate erection, premature ejaculation, painful sex, anatomical abnormalities such as having hypospadias, or psychological or relationship issues that interfere with sex.

 

Environmental causes

Industrial chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, toluene, benzene, xylene, organic solvents and lead may reduce sperm count with prolonged exposure.

 

X-ray radiation

Horrible radiation can damage sperm production, but it usually returns to normal with time. High doses of radiation can irreversibly damage sperm production.

 

Testicular overheating

Prolonged sedentary work, wearing tight clothing, or working on a computer or laptop for long periods of time may also increase scrotal temperature and slightly reduce sperm production.

Author's Bio: 

Dr. Manjunath C S is a senior consultant in Reproductive Medicine & Medical Director at Mathrutva Fertility Center, Bangalore. Dr. Manjunath's main areas of specialization are Female Infertility, In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) ,Hysterectomy and laparoscopic procedures in Gynaecological Surgery.