Head Injury
What is Head Injury?
An injury to skull and even brain as a result of trauma
Who will provide care for head Injury?
Neurosurgeons, Intensivists in association with Anaesthetists (Polytrauma), General Surgeons, Psychiatrists, Dieticians and Rehabilitation Experts
What are the consequences of Head Injury?
• Bruising and Swelling on the scalp
• Scalp wounds
• Hematoma in the brain
• Haemorrhage in the brain
• Diffuse axonal injury
• Skull fractures
• Concussion / Mild Traumatic Brain injury
• CSF leak
• Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
What are the complications of Head Injury?
• Infection
• Post-concussion syndrome
• Epilepsy
• Imbalance in gait
• Coordination issues
• Hormonal Imbalance or Dysfunction
• Changes in sensation
• Altered perception towards smell and taste
• Cognitive and Behavioural Impairment
• Muscle weakness and Muscle Spasms
• Sexual Dysfunction
• Infertility
• Breathing difficulties
What are the symptoms of head injury?
• Headache
• Memory impairment
• Dizziness
• Seizures
• Blurring or double vision
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Headache
• Emotional Imbalance
• Transient loss of memory
• Confusion and disorientation
• Sleep difficulties
• Tinnitus
• Reeling sensation
• Speech difficulties
How is Head Injury Evaluated and Diagnosed?
• Thorough Physical Examination
• Vital Signs Evaluation
• Complete Neurological Examination
• Imaging – X-Ray Scanning, CT Scanning, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
• Intracranial Pressure Monitoring
• Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) Assessment
How is Head Injury treated?
• Medication –Antibiotics, Analgesics, Antiemetic Drugs, Anticonvulsants, Diuretics, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, Beta Blockers, Erythropoietin,
• Ventilator Support
• Surgery – Open and Minimally Invasive Surgeries, Decompressive craniectomies
Nutrition – Parental or Enteral feeding
• Fluid resuscitation – Saline
• Continuous Intracranial Pressure Monitoring
What are the self-management tips after head Injury?
• Managing daily activities while taking short 20 to 30mins breaks
• Avoiding alcohol and caffeinated beverages
• Being hydrated with plenty of fluids – Unsalted and unsweetened soups, fruit juices and water
• Manging stress, Practising relaxation techniques & Pulmonary rehabilitation
• Training with a physiotherapist for loss of sensation and mobility issues
• Consulting your Neurosurgeon if recovery process is delayed
• Asking your Neurosurgeon before taking a decision to drive
• Monitoring and controlling hypertension
• Taking medications as directed by your neurosurgeon
• Managing other health conditions such as diabetes and inflammation
• Staying away from illicit drugs
• Maintaining health weight and losing extra kilos if needed
• Eating healthy foods – Fruits, Vegetables, Beans, Whole grains, Nuts, Healthy oils, Mediterranean diet,
• Eating cooked food with low salt and low saturated or trans fats
• Exercising regularly and as directed for at least 30minutes a day with 10minute intervals
How rehabilitation can help head injury after medical management?
• Rehabilitation is a methodical focussed approach that emphasises on teaching or directing the affected patient to repetitively perform set of defined and customised activities
• Rehabilitation helps to regain and relearn the lost functions and abilities while developing skills to circumvent unrecoverable disabilities with alternative activities or flairs
• Rehabilitation is provided by a large group of healthcare professionals including – Neurologist, Psychiatrist, Neuropsychologist, Physical Therapist, Occupational therapist, Language therapist, Dietician and Recreation therapist

Author's Bio: 

Virinchi Hospitals, is a renowned multispecialty hospitals in Hyderabad, located in the midst of healthcare cluster at Banjara Hills. The hospital provides comprehensive healthcare from diverse medical disciplines with best of the doctors and supporting staff working full time to address every single medical condition, rehabilitation and auxiliary care needs of our patients.