Generally, the well-known sexually transmitted infection, Chlamydia (specifically Chlamydia trachomatis), is primarily transmitted through sexual activity, making it a common cause of chlamydia infections. Unprotected anal, vaginal, or oral sex can result in the transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis to an uninfected individual. It's important to note that even if you have received treatment for chlamydia trachomatis in the past, you can still become infected if you engage in unprotected sexual activity with someone who is currently infected.

However, sexual transmission is not the sole route of chlamydia infections, but rather one of the common ones. Chlamydia trachomatis can also be transmitted from mothers to their children during childbirth, or it can be acquired through indirect or direct contact with infected individuals.

Chlamydia is classified into various types, including Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Chlamydia psittaci. Therefore, even individuals who have not engaged in sexual activity can still contract chlamydia. Here are further details:

Transmission routes of chlamydia trachomatis (excluding sexual transmission):

1. Maternal to child transmission.

If the mother carries chlamydia trachomatis, there is a possibility for their children to be infected during childbirth through contact with the birth canal, and some patients may also be infected in the uterus or during the postpartum period. That is to say. Virgins may also be infected with chlamydia trachomatis through mother-to-child transmission during infancy.

2. Indirect transmission

People can also have such infections through contact with towels, bath towels, clothing, toilets, etc., used by infected patients. Furthermore, swimming with infected patients can also lead to chlamydia trachomatis infections. 

It is recommended not to share personal belongings with others and avoid contact with items that infected people have come into contact with to prevent infections. When people have their hands contaminated with chlamydia trachomatis and rub their eyes without washing their hands, they will be able to have Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

3. Direct contact transmission:

Some patients with chlamydia trachomatis infections may have no clinical symptoms in the incubation period. Healthy people or patients with various other diseases can be infected by importing blood or blood products provided by infected people. Contact with the patient's damaged skin, mucous membrane, or secretion may also lead to chlamydia trachomatis infections.

Transmission routes of chlamydia pneumoniae:

Humans are the only hosts of chlamydia pneumoniae, mainly transmitted through droplets and respiratory secretions between humans. People with weaker physical constitutions and weakened immunity are more likely to be infected with the pathogen.

Transmission routes of chlamydia psittaci:

Parrot fever is a zoonotic infection caused by chlamydia psittaci, and the source of infection includes birds and poultry in the family Psittacidae. Most human infections with parrot fever are caused by accidental inhalation of bird excrement or contact with pathogenic birds. Parrot fever is mostly a concealed infection, and it is infrequent for people to transmit it through the respiratory tract.

Chlamydia infection can cause significant harm to patients' health. Take chlamydia trachomatis as an example:

About 50% of nongonococcal urethritis is caused by chlamydia trachomatis infections. Chlamydia trachomatis is small in volume, between bacteria and viruses, and usually parasitizes cells, severely damaging the tissues in cells. It can cause venereal lymphogranuloma, which can easily lead to pelvic inflammation and cervicitis in women, as well as premature pregnancy and abortion in pregnant women.

Chlamydia trachomatis can also infect infants, resulting in the development of trachoma, chlamydia trachomatis-induced ophthalmia, and chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia. In men, chlamydia trachomatis infection often leads to urethritis. Symptoms of chlamydial urethritis include tingling and itching in the urethra, discharge from the urethral opening, and urethral syndrome. Patients may experience symptoms such as fever, increased frequency and urgency of urination, pain during urination, and a constant urge to urinate.

In more severe cases, chlamydia trachomatis can cause male and female infertility. It can lead to epididymitis in men, resulting in dysfunction of testicular sperm production and decreased sperm viability, thereby affecting fertility.

If you have been diagnosed with chlamydia infection, it is important not to panic. Instead, calmly address the situation and promptly seek appropriate treatment. In daily life, it is crucial to manage the condition effectively, follow the correct treatment methods, and take measures to prevent recurring outbreaks of chlamydia.

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