Anatomy of your nervous system relative to neuropathy
David B. Phillips, Ph.D.

Your nervous system keeps you informed of changes in the environment. It also allows you to respond to these changes. For instance, suppose a car is approaching as you step off the curb. Sensory cells in your eyes respond, impulses are then carried along sensory nerves to the brain. The brain interprets the impulses and responds, sending impulses along motor nerves to the muscles in your legs and feet. This allows you to step back from the curb.

The nervous system harmonizes all bodily activities: directs the work of all other tissues toward a common particular function. Because of the nervous system there is a line of communication between the receptors: the ears, eyes, nose, skin, and the effectors: the muscles and glands. The receptors enable you to be aware of your surroundings, and the effectors carry out the reactions necessary to survive in these surroundings. The nervous system is the center of all psychic activity. All feeling and thought, all mental faculties such as judgment and reason originate here. It is the basis of all instincts and reflexes.

The complex group of organs and nerves (they control all your actions and thoughts) is the nervous system. The brain is the control center of the nervous system. Nerve cells in the brain receive messages from every part of the body. The brain processes these messages and sends a response back to other parts of the body through other nerve cells. The brain is the master control unit for the body. The central nervous system includes the brain and the spinal cord. The central nervous system receives and processes information and sends out instructions. Most of the messages travel through the spinal cord.

Your nervous system allows you to respond to changes in your environment and stores information to be used days, months, or even years later. It also is in charge of your body's voluntary and involuntary muscle movements. It makes your muscles contract and relax. Your nervous system can do all this because of billions of nerve cells throughout your body. The nerve cells send signals to each other and to muscles.

The neuron is the basic unit of the nervous system and is commonly called a nerve cell. These neurons will carry messages from one part of your body to another. The name of these messages of sensation and information are called impulses. The neurons form the communication system that controls the body's many functions and stores information. There are different types of neurons, but they all have certain features that are similar. All the organs and parts of the nervous system are composed of neurons and their accessory or protective tissues. The neuron consists of the nerve-cell body and its parts. Dendrites are a number of short, branch-like processes, which conduct impulses toward the cell body. The axon is one process of the cell that is much longer than any of the dendrites and carries the impulses away from the cell.

Nerve impulses travel along a neuron and are similar to a tiny electrical charge. These nerve impulses may travel as fast as 360 feet per second along an axon.

A space called the synapse is between the end of the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another. When the impulse reaches the end of an axon, it is passed to a dendrite of the next neuron by neurotransmitters. There are chemicals that pass across a synapse from an axon to a dendrite. Neurotransmitters trigger an impulse, which travels down the dendrite to the cell body and out along the axon. The synapse is encased in a conductive fluid called the synaptic fluid. These chemical messengers carry specific electrical information across the synaptic junction. In effect, these neurotransmitters act like tiny batteries or capacitors to modulate the speed at which upcoming electrical impulses carrying information about your environment.

There are three basic types of nerve cells. Sensory nerve cells perform one of two functions. Specialized sensory nerve cells respond to particular stimuli in the environment, such as light or heat. They pass impulses to other sensory nerve cells that carry the information to the brain and spinal cord. In the brain and spinal cord, decisions can be made. Motor nerve cells carry instructions from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands. Connecting nerve cells join sensory and motor nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Nerve cells are grouped together in large bundles called nerves.

A nerve fiber is either an axon of a motor neuron or the dendrite of a sensory neuron. of the nervous system to collect information and send instructions throughout the body. Some nerves contain only sensory and some only motor fibers, while some, like the great sciatic nerve of the thigh, contain both. The central core of a nerve fiber is usually covered with a fatty substance known as the myelin sheath. It is white, so the fibers will appear white also. The nerve-cell bodies and their parts are gray. Portions of the brain and cord in which the cell bodies congregate are called gray matter, while the portions made up mostly of the fibers are known as white matter. Three parts of the nervous system work together to accomplish this task. The central nervous system includes the brain and the spinal cord. The central nervous system receives and processes information and sends out instructions.

The nervous system has two closely associated divisions. The cerebrospinal system, made up of the brain and spinal cord and their attached nerves, controls all voluntary functions, and some usually involuntary, like breathing. The autonomic system, consisting chiefly of a connected series of ganglia lying alongside the vertebral column, controls such vital processes as circulation, digestion, swallowing, respiration, and is subject to influence from the emotions, but not from the will.

The brain is a soft, grayish mass containing billions of nerve cells. The hard, platelike bones of the skull protect it. The brain can be divided into three parts, the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. The cerebrum is responsible for the highly developed intelligence of human beings. Some regions receive messages about what you see, hear, and smell, or how you move. Other parts control your ability to think, write, talk, and express emotions. The part of the brain that coordinates the muscles that you use for auction, such as running or walking, is the cerebellum. It is under and behind the cerebrum and coordinates a constant flow of nerve impulses from the body and cerebrum. The cerebellum puts this information together to help your muscles perform the way you walk. It helps control your balance and maintain posture. The brainstem is the structure that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord. There are three divisions that form this stem: the midbrain, pons, and the medulla.

The medulla is the center that controls some of the most important functions of life, such as breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and swallowing. The pons is a bundle of nerve fibers that link the cerebrum with the cerebellum and the right side of the brain with the left side of the brain. The midbrain is a group of nerves that control certain involuntary actions such as pupil size and eye movements.

The spinal cord is within the vertebral column and is the main trunk of the body. It extends from the medulla to just below the ribs. The nerve fibers in the spinal cord reach out to all parts of the body, connecting all of the nerves in your body to the central nervous system. If the spinal cord is damaged, the body may be unable to feel or move from the point of injury downward. The spinal cord is actually a continuation of the medulla and is about l8 inches long. The spinal cord is contained within the cavity formed by the interlocked vertebrae of the backbone. There are thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves emerging from the cord, each nerve bringing in impulses to the back side of the cord, and carrying away impulses from the front side. Within the cord these impulses are distributed to higher or lower centers.

Three protective membranes, known collectively as the meninges, surround both the brain and spinal cord. The space between these membranes is bathed with a spinal fluid much like lymph, which serves as a protective cushion for the delicate nerve tissue, and allows some expansion space for the brain when its blood supply is increased.

The system that carries messages between the body and the central nervous system is the peripheral nervous system. Impulses constantly travel between the two nervous systems. This happens through 31 pairs of large nerves branching from the spinal cord and 12 pairs of nerves branching from the brain. These nerves contain thousands of sensory and motor nerve fibers that reach to all parts of the body. Part of the peripheral nervous system carries sensory information. Part of the peripheral nervous system carries motor impulses that control voluntary action.

The autonomic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary responses. It is made up largely of motor nerves. It affects many organs including the heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, liver, kidneys, sweat glands, salivary glands, and pupils of the eye. This autonomic nervous system consists of two parts. The parasympathetic nervous system generally slows down the body's functions, such as heartbeat and rate of breathing, when you are resting. The sympathetic nervous system is that part that works when you are active or under emotional stress. If you were to get excited blood flow would travel to the active muscles, making your heart rate and your breathing rate increase. This interplay between the two parts of the autonomic nervous system keeps your body working properly in all situations. It is done without your conscious control.

The above information defines the various parts of the nervous system to hopefully give you a better understanding of this complex system in the body. The nervous system is likened to a communication system, as it is able to communicate with all other body systems. It directs all activities of all the systems and receives information about the conditions in all other systems. There is a massive power to the brain, the master organ of the body and the seat of the thinking mind. It controls almost every physical body function, every thought, and every emotion. The brain obtains information about events and conditions around the body with the help of the spinal cord that consists of nerves that connect the brain to all the body parts. These two main parts of the nervous system keep your body working properly in all situations and this is done without your conscious control.

There is an ongoing curiosity relative to nerves. When dissected from a cadaver, one finds fibers that appear to connect some axons to other axons, but when observed and examined with high powered microscopes in living tissue, these are not visible. since dead tissue cannot regenerate, then we believe that these fibers do exist and it is this cross connection aspect that the ReBuilder utilizes to effect the restoration of functioning in dysfunctional nerves.

The nerve cell and its processes collectively constitute what is termed a neuron, and a scientist named Waldeyer formulated the theory that the nervous system is built up of numerous neurons, “anatomically and genetically independent of one another.” According to this theory (neuron theory) the processes of one neuron only come into contact, and are never in direct continuity, with those of other neurons; while impulses are transmitted from one nerve cell to another through these points of contact, the synapses. The synapse or synaptic membrane seems to allow nervous impulses to pass in one direction only, namely, from the terminals of the axis-cylinder to the dendrons. This theory is based on the following facts, viz.: (1) embryonic nerve cells or neuroblasts are entirely distinct from one another; (2) when nervous tissues are stained by the Golgi method no continuity is seen even between neighboring neurons; and (3) when degenerative changes occur in nervous tissue, either as the result of disease or experiment, they never spread from one neuron to another, but are limited to the individual neurons, or groups of neurons, primarily affected. It must, however, be added that within the past few years the validity of the neuron theory has been called in question by certain eminent histologists, who maintain that by the employment of more delicate histological methods, minute fibrils can be followed from one nerve cell into another. Their existence, however, in the living is open to question. Mott and Marinesco made careful examinations of living cells, using even the ultramicroscope and agree that neither Nissl bodies nor neurofibrils are present in the living state.

For the present we may look upon the neurons as the units or structural elements of the nervous system. All the neurons are present at birth which are present in the adult, their division ceases before birth; they are not all functionally active at birth, but gradually assume functional activity. There is no indication of any regeneration after the destruction of the cell-body of any individual neuron.

Fasciculi, tracts or fiber systems are groups of axons having homologous origin and homologous distribution (as regards their collaterals, subdivisions and terminals) and are often named in accordance with their origin and termination, the name of the nucleus or the location of the cell body from which the axon or fiber arises preceding that of the nucleus or location of its termination. A given topographical area seldom represents a pure tract, as in most cases fibers of different systems are mixed.

What this means to sufferers of peripheral neuropathy pain is since these neurons are present, but dormant, and they are awakened by the stimulus around the baby. In like manner, dormant nerves are reawakened by the specific stimulation provided by the ReBuilder.

Neuropathy Mystery Solved

The simple explanation is, that at some time in your past, your peripheral nerves were challenged and to protect themselves from additional damage, they became dormant. The trouble is, once the initial cause was removed, your nerves were never awakened.

Some of the causes of your neuropathy could be as follows:

• a lack of oxygen in your blood from sleep apnea or lung problems

• too much sugar in your blood from diabetes, displacing oxygen

• chemotherapy chemicals in your blood from the treatment of cancer

• trauma to your nerve, like a fall or cut

• an adverse reaction to the anesthesia delivered during surgery

• impingement or pressure on your nerve

• contact with a pesticide, black mold, or other neurotoxin

• too much aspartame (neurotoxin) as in diet colas

• too much blood pressure medication reducing the blood flow to the extremities

• statin drugs you took for cholesterol control

• poor blood flow to your extremities

• poor back surgery

Think of it like this. When you were young you probably sat with your leg under your buttocks and your leg "fell asleep". How did that feel? You experienced the same symptoms that you now have with neuropathy. Your leg tingled and then you began to feel numbness.

So what did Mother Nature have you do to correct this? You simply moved your leg (stopped the cause) and then stomped your foot on the ground and the feeling returned.

Why did this stomping work? It was because you sent a much larger, but normal nerve impulse up your leg to the nerve roots of your lower back. That is exactly how the ReBuilder works.

The ReBuilder sends a much larger signal to your feet, hands, and legs that travel up and down 7.83 times per second. This signal is an exact duplicate of a normal nerve signal.

Most people use the ReBuilder twice a day for their neuropathy symptoms for the first month, then once a day for another month, and then once or twice a week for the third month, and then as needed, whenever they feel the need after that.

What is the ReBuilder?

The ReBuilder is a very specialized form of TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator) that can produce dramatic improvement in the reduction of painful symptoms.

The ReBuilder is an electronic device used in the privacy of your own home.

The ReBuilder is a covered medical device by Medicare/insurance as a TENS device (E0730).

The conductive garments are a covered medical device by Medicare (E0731).

The ReBuilder is fully registered by the FDA as a TENS and EMS class II medical device.

The ReBuilder is a small, hand-held, battery powered nerve stimulator that sends a comfortable electronic impulse to your feet and legs.

The ReBuilder is effective for hands, knees, elbows, back, feet, and legs.

The ReBuilder is effective for any type of pain: neuropathy, carpel tunnel syndrome, sciatica, low back pain, CIDP, post polio syndrome, PAD, PVD, MS, MD, arthritis, etc. However, it is specifically designed for the pain of neuropathy.

The ReBuilder's built-in microprocessor measures several physiological functions of your nerves and automatically adjusts itself to your specific therapeutic needs beginning with the first healing signal.

While sitting in your chair or in bed, this signal travels automatically from one foot, up the leg, across the nerve roots in the lower back, then down the other leg to the other foot.

These signals produce a gentle buzzing feeling. These tingling impulses then reverse direction and go from one foot all the way back to the other. In this way, all the nerves from the lumbar area down to your feet are treated.

Interesting facts about your feet and legs that can relate to the discomfort that you feel:

• One quarter of your bones are in your feet - (we have 26 bones in each foot.) Each joint is monitored by your nerves to maintain the proper flexibility. When these connections are dysfunctional, your joints can stiffen and you lose mobility

• When we take a step we use 200 muscles. Each muscle is connected to the nervous system. If your brain does not get the proper sensory signals from your feet, then it can send confusing signals to your leg and feet muscles and you can fall down, seemingly for no apparent reason.

• Your feet can produce a pint of sweat each day - (250,000 sweat glands in each foot.) Each gland is connected to a nerve ending (dendrite) and if your feet are constantly too damp, they are susceptible to a fungal infection which can lead to gangrene and amputation. If they are too dry, then the temperature cannot be properly regulated, and your feet can feel like they are on fire. If they are too cold, then blood flow is inhibited and your nerves cells can become starved for oxygen.

• Nerves use 10 times as much oxygen as any other tissue. It is therefore IMPORTANT that your nerves have unhindered access to as much oxygen as possible. The warm water from the footbath, and/or the reflected infrared heat reflected back to your feet from the silver impregnated socks (a mirror is coated on the backside with silver which is an almost perfect heat reflector) increases the temperature of your skin which opens up the capillaries which, in turn, increases blood flow to bring in as much oxygen as possible.

• You are taller in the morning: Throughout the day, the cartilage between your bones is compressed, making you about 1 cm shorter by day’s end. This can squeeze nerves that pass between your spinal column and can account for the extra pain you feel in your legs and feet at night.

Not all people with the challenges to their nerves suffer from neuropathy pain. Why is that? Perhaps it is because those who suffer have a genetic pre-disposition to nerve damage.

The bottom line is that no matter what your physician tells you, your nerves are not dead. Your nerves merely “went to sleep” and there are ways to re-awaken your nerves, One tool is the ReBuilder.

Author's Bio: 

Dr. Phillips was awarded "The Inventor of the Year" in 1987 for the world's first infrared ear thermometer. He developed the "GST System for the Earlier Detection of Breast Cancer" in 1978. He is the inventor of "the ReBuilder system for Neuropathy" and CEO of ReBuilder Medical, Inc.
Dr. Phillips invented and developed the only known cure for the highly contagious skin disease Molluscum Contagiosum that uses silver ions to destroy the virus without pain or scarring.
Dr. Phillips is now developing an electronic medical device to make it easier and safer for a nurse to draw blood called The Vein Appear.