Any vaginal bleeding that occurs while you are not on your menstrual cycle is considered abnormal. Regulated vaginal bleeding, also known as uterine bleeding, is usually not serious and is often easily treated. This spotting, however, could be a sign of a more serious condition, such as fibroids, an infection, or polyps.

Continue reading to find out more about the causes and treatment of abnormal vaginal bleeding.
Several factors can cause a person to bleed outside of their menstrual cycle.

1. Birth Control
Several birth control methods can cause irregular vaginal bleeding. They are as follows:
- Combined hormonal contraceptives
- Hormonal intrauterine devices (IUD)
- Copper IUDs
- Contraceptive implants
- Injectable contraceptives.

2. Menarche and Menopause
Menarche refers to the start of menstruation, whereas menopause refers to the end. The menstrual cycle's rhythm is off during these times, resulting in irregular bleeding.

The menstrual cycle typically begins when a woman reaches the age of 12 or 13. It can, however, appear sooner or later. The menstrual cycle differs from that of adulthood during menarche. The cycle itself lasts between 21 and 45 days, whereas the average length in adulthood is between 21 and 34 days. Bleeding between periods is common during the early stages of menstruation.

Similarly, menopause is preceded by perimenopause, a period in which menstruation becomes irregular and eventually ceases. The spotting or irregular bleeding that occurs during this period is usually caused by hormonal changes.

3. Structural Abnormalities
Certain structural abnormalities can result in irregular bleeding:
- Cervical polyps
- Uterine fibroids
- Adenomyosis
- Uterine polyps
- Endometrial hyperplasia

4. Stress and Lifestyle Changes
Stress and lifestyle changes can cause a variety of physiological changes, one of which is irregular vaginal bleeding.

One study looked at how psychological stress affected students and discovered that 91% of participants had problems with their normal menstrual patterns. 9.3% of those 91% had irregular vaginal bleeding.

When it comes to abnormal uterine bleeding, body weight can also play a role. One study looked into the link between obesity and irregular vaginal bleeding and discovered that obesity increased the risk of irregular vaginal bleeding.

Changes in your diet or exercise routine can also cause changes in your menstrual cycle, resulting in bleeding between periods.

5. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition that causes problems with ovulation and ovarian function.

When the condition prevents ovulation, the menstrual cycle is disrupted. As a result, a woman may have irregular periods and vaginal bleeding. Up to 85% of PCOS patients will experience abnormal vaginal bleeding.

6. Pregnancy
Pregnancy can result in irregular vaginal bleeding in several ways, including:
- Implantation bleeding: When the fertilized egg attaches to the womb, some light bleeding may occur.
- Changes in the cervix: Bleeding can occur when the cervix prepares itself for pregnancy.
- Miscarriage: Miscarriage, or the loss of a pregnancy, can result in bleeding. Bleeding in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy is usually a sign that you have miscarried.
- Ectopic pregnancy: When a fertilized egg attaches itself to the wall of a fallopian tube or elsewhere outside of the uterus, this is referred to as an ectopic pregnancy. Bleeding can be an indication that this has happened.

7. Cancers of the Reproductive System
In some cases, vaginal bleeding between periods can be a sign of:
- Cervical cancer
- Uterine cancer
- Vaginal cancer
- Ovarian cancer

When to Seek Medical Attention
Any unusual vaginal bleeding necessitates a visit to your doctor. It's best to get it checked out because there are so many possible causes, some of which can be serious. A diagnosis opens the door to treatment, which should stop the vaginal bleeding.

Author's Bio: 

I am Amelia Grant, a journalist, and blogger. I think that information is a great force that is able to change people’s lives for the better. That is why I feel a strong intention to share useful and important things about health self-care, wellness, and other advice that may be helpful for people. Being an enthusiast of a healthy lifestyle that keeps improving my life, I wish the same for everyone.

Our attention to ourselves, to our daily routine and habits, is very important. Things that may seem insignificant, are pieces of a big puzzle called life. I want to encourage people to be more attentive to their well-being, improve every little item of it, and become healthier, happier, and stronger. All of us deserve that. And I really hope that my work helps to make the world better.