PCOS is a common hormonal condition among women, affecting women between puberty and menopause. The diagnosis of PCOS is based on some physical tests, increased androgen, lack of regular ovulation and small cysts detected in ovaries with ultrasound. There is around 25% of the population is affected by PCOS.
Read the common questions from the heart of all women, answered by fertility experts of the country.

1. What is PCOS?
As mentioned above, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome or PCOS is a Hormonal condition that affects one in every five women of reproductive age. This is one of the most common hormonal dis-balance in women and proper diagnosis and treatment in the early stage can reduce its effects and help in regaining control to the syndrome.

2. What are the symptoms of PCOS?
PCOS can happen at any age after puberty, girls young as 14 can get PCOS. It can affect different women in different ways and up to a varying extent. The most common and noticeable PCOS symptom is a disturbance in the menstruation cycle. This is causes as ovulation does not take place in an expected way. Due to this, there is a difficulty in conceiving and this leads to infertility and anxiety. However, not all women suffering from PCOS have fertility problem but PCOS is one of the major cause of infertility in women.
Another PCOS symptom includes cysts in the ovary, diabetes, increased level of male hormone i.e. Androgen, that leads to hairiness. Growth of extra facial and body hair, acne, thinning head hair, weight gain are other visible common symptoms of PCOS. These symptoms are mild in the beginning but easily noticeable.

3. How PCOS can be diagnosed?
Though not all suffering from PCOS faces fertility problem but many do. If you found any of the symptoms mentioned above of getting it difficult to get pregnant after trying for more than a year, it is important for you to get it diagnosed and find the proper treatment.
When you visit the doctor for the check-up your doctor may ask you a few questions related to your past health, menstruation cycle or someone else in your family diagnosed with PCOS.
A physical exam may be conducted to look for symptoms such as body hair and high blood pressure, etc.
Lastly a series of tests to check insulin level, blood sugar level, thyroid and hormone levels.
A pelvic ultrasound is also performed to diagnosis cyst in ovaries.

4. What are the main PCOS causes?
PCOS causes are related to family history, lifestyle, high level of androgen and insulin.
Family history: Women having immediate family relatives such as mother, daughter or sister with PCOS have 50% more chances of having PCOS.
Lifestyle: The current lifestyle is a major cause of PCOS. Smoking, drinking alcohol and being above a healthy weight are naming to few. Many women reported that they didn’t face any of the PCOS symptoms until they gained weight. All symptoms appeared only after weight gain.
High level of androgen: All women produce androgen (widely known as the male hormone) but in very small quantities. Higher then the ideal level of Androgen in women can prevent ovaries from releasing an egg during menstruation, this causes PCOS. Access hair growth and acne are found due to a higher level of Androgen in women.
High level of insulin: Insulin is the hormone that controls how the food will convert into energy. Women with PCOS have insulin resistance, which means the body does not respond to insulin normally. Insulin resistance can lead to type 2 diabetes in women.

5. What are the treatments available for PCOS?
PCOS is not curable. But there are several PCOS treatments available to balance the hormones that can help you to get pregnant. The PCOS treatment includes-
Move towards a healthy lifestyle. Eat a balanced and healthy diet and make a habit of exercise daily.
Put off the extra weight and stop taking unhealthy fat.
Bad habits such as smoking and drinking alcohol need to be avoided.
If you are not planning to conceive than birth control pills may be given to regulate the periods.
Infertility caused by PCOS can be treated by effective medication and therapies. Assisted Productive Technology (ART) such as IVF, IUI or ICSI may be recommended.

Author's Bio: 

PCOS is one of the commonest hormonal problems in women. It may cause them infertility, obesity, diabetes, other heat-related diseases, and depression. PCOS sufferers may understand the importance of a healthy diet, reduction of stress and quit the habit of smoking and drinking. They should consult the doctor for proper medication and fertility issues caused by PCOS. Last but not least, they deserve support from their partner, family, and social group.